Unfortunately it did not succeed, so many critics and Zimbabweans blame ESAP, and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) that. An Introduction to ESAP: Zimbabwe By David Coltart. 31st January Danish Volunteer Service Development Workers Meeting. ESAP in Zimbabwe came as a result of the lame economy that the new government inherited and the inappropriate economic policies adopted at independence.

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Declining conditions of work and uncompetitive pay have chased many better-skilled public servants out of government, feeding a growing popular perception that government’s main economic policy is being driven by “foreign experts.

‘ESAP was never ideal for Zim’ | Celebrating Being Zimbabwean

One result was a sharp decline in average real wages. In the s, the Highly Indebted Poor Countries HIPC debt release deals were linked to a focus on poverty reduction, and for some countries in Africa it had a positive effect — even if this was only temporary. Circumstances were unfavourable when ESAP was introduced.

Richard notes that trade liberalization provides free access to capital goods and imported raw materials, it also opens the domestic market to competition from imported goods which place severe strains on local companies were feeling a negative impact of liberalization.

In the rural areas, the majority population was often forced to depend on government food aid. It is important to remember, however, that structural adjustment only became in vogue in ; prior to that it was a phrase unknown in Zimbabwe. What if there had been more accountability in such liberalisation processes, would there have been less venal corruption taking over?

And finally, there was the string of large loans and credit facilities from the Bank, the IMF and international donors, aimed at supporting the country’s balance of payments and government’s plans for substantial private sector infrastructural development. Greece, as well as many countries in Africa, have suffered the long-term consequences of a combination of structural underdevelopment, oligarchic corruption and patrimonialism and poor economic governance. To find out more, including how to control cookies, see here: At that point exports were growing rapidly, the balance of payments was positive and foreign exchange freely available.

The result was policies that sustained existing firms, but seriously limited their incentives to invest and innovate. It was made the responsibility of potential beneficiaries to apply to the SDF for relief and there was considerable general confusion, even among government officials, as to what criteria qualified an applicant for assistance, and how zmibabwe should be carried out.


Living standards, life expectancy, and production have plummeted, while political oppression has risen in Zimbabwe over the past zimhabwe years. Examining each of these possibilities allows us to come up with a nuanced interpretation of what actually happened in the early s.

Origins of the Zimbabwe crisis

Small scale hammer mills employed 7 permanent zombabwe plus additional 3 causal workers. Then, Hitler attacked me and the Protestant church – and there was nobody left to be concerned. Trade unions have scrambled to maintain membership and bargaining strength in the face of hostile “liberalisation” measures, while indigenous business lobbies have applied pressure for government assistance in the face of their members’ decimation by tough zimbabee competition. However, it is also important to note that they were not nearly as poor as many people believe.

Domestic business has to learn to compete in the world market and accordingly many measures designed to protect local industry must be removed so that local industry has to become efficient if it is to compete internationally. With all the radio and television hype and literature on ESAP floating around these days it seems as if structural adjustment has been with us since the beginning of time.

However, the Bill, and especially the timing of its publication, has the potential to stall the entire Structural Adjustment Programme. Second, the ESAP reforms were badly sequenced, and unevenly applied. Privatisation led to income shortages to the government because of reduced sources of income.

Remember me on this computer. You have entered an incorrect email address! Germany is a nation that has come to terms with its history, but clearly not this particular detail.

Speech by David Coltart: An Introduction to ESAP: Zimbabwe 1992

Can lessons for Greece and debt vulnerable nations in Africa be learned from this period and its aftermath? This caused a sharp rise in interest rates just as local firms faced greater foreign competition. In that process, it robbed Zimbabweans of the values of family structures as parents left their children in the hands of maids and guardians. The Government also participated in the heavy social sector eaap with the aim of redressing colonial, social and economic injustices. Most Zimbabweans have experienced these changes in terms of employment and falling standards of living.


The manufacturing sector achieved positive growth inand its exports increased. Others, however, believe that drought and failure to implement ESAP reforms effectively were responsible. The Editorial in the same copy of the Financial Gazette states that it is worrying that some targets easp not been met. In the process, and without much apology from the political powers-that-be, an ever leaner state has been stripped of many of the functions – in the spheres of popular education and health services, in particular – that once marked the most positive achievements of Zimbabwe’s post-colonial period.

Fourthly, minimum wages and a system that required ministerial permission to retrench workers reduced employment.

The inevitable result has been the rapid entrenchment of a two-tier health care system, in which those most in need and least able to pay have been increasingly marginalised from quality services.

Zimbabwe is experiencing a cumulative breakdown. Later this week, government representatives from across the world assemble in in Addis to discuss a financing for developmentin advance of fsap signing of the UN Sustainable Development Goals in September. The reality is that diminished household incomes hold little likelihood of recovery to pre-ESAP levels, for many years to come. Original articles on important current themes in sub-Saharan Africa. The government has since addressed these shortcomings in its new Poverty Alleviation Action Plan.

This decrease implied diminished spending on drugs, extension and zimbabee health services, specialist facilities and treatment and other components of quality health care delivery. How did this happen, and what can eszp done to prevent it from recurring?

Massive amounts of constructive support from donors will be required to enable a future regime to execute the necessary transitions. If the private sector is hindered in any way the whole process can break down catastrophically.